The Centrality of Power

The summary of a session at the global summit that explored the issue of power within integrated landscape management.

One of the sessions at our recent global summit looked at the the issue of power within integrated landscape management. As we know, power dynamics between different groups, including genders, ethnicities, education levels, and professions, significantly impact land use. Here, I summarize the main points from this excellent session.

↔️These interactions are instrumental in shaping the landscape we see.

⭕️ 𝐀𝐠𝐞𝐧𝐜𝐲⭕️ As landscape actors, we must recognize our own agency and decide whether to address inequality or remain passive observers.

The session explored three key strategies for empowerment.

1️⃣ Identify stakeholders and understand their sources of power, using tools like a power/influence matrix and net-mapping.

⚒ A power/influence matrix is a classic method to sort out actors in a system and associate them to dimensions of both power, interest, and attitude, helping to navigate the complexities of a social system. (Read the paper, Making Sense of Stakeholder Mapping here)

🛠 A method we have been using in across the Landscapes For Our Future program is Net-Mapping. A highly participatory exercise to understand levels of influence and visualize power between actors, helping to diagnose the political landscape. (Read more about Net-Mapping here)

2️⃣ Recognize power disparities and voicelessness.

3️⃣ Enable empowerment through tailored approaches and strategies, including training, safe spaces, alliances, resource access, and rights, such as legal or cultural rights, that have been historically denied (e.g., women’s land rights).

Empowering others means giving them a voice, enhancing visibility, and fostering innovation and diversity. It’s about intentionally creating safe spaces and using spatial leadership to amplify the voices of the marginalized.

❓ A critical question persists: How do we engage powerful actors in discussions about changing the status quo, especially those who may resist such change and stand to lose power?

📓 Read the article, “Power, politics and participation: Naming the non-technical in multi-stakeholder processes” here.

📝 Read the article, “Navigating power imbalances in landscape governance: a network and influence analysis in southern Zambia” here.

A methods toolbox for integrated landscape approaches

This chapter aims to give guidance for those working within integrated landscape approaches. It suggests key points for consideration to allow those involved to have a better understanding of the landscape context and dynamics.

Net-maps and vision in PNG

Stakeholder identification and development of a common vision: on a learning mission to Papua New Guinea, our Central Component Coordinator highlights two of the six critical dimensions of Integrated Landscape Management.

The Strengthening Integrated Sustainable Landscape Management (SISLaM) project in Papua New Guinea, lead by the UNDP’s Sam Moko, recently hosted our programme’s Central Component Coordinator, Kim Geheb, on a learning visit to see how the six critical dimensions of ILM could be further implemented.

As part of this process, the SISLaM team organised a workshop, inviting more than 30 stakeholders to participate. Kim introduced ‘Net-Mapping’, which was employed to identify the stakeholders’ relevance to the project, the relationships between them, and the influence they can marshal to enable the project to achieve its vision.

Net-Mapping in action at the workshop.

This process drew upon the SISLaM project’s goals to establish a defined project vision:

Because of the project, Enga Province’s sustainable and inclusive economic development was increased when the impacts of climate change were mitigated, and its people adapted; the food and nutrition security of its people was strengthened; and its biodiversity, land and forests were conserved, sustainably used and restored.

SISLaM Project vision.

Because of the large number of stakeholders at the workshop, participants were divided into two groups. They started by identifying who they thought was the most influential stakeholder at present and awarded that stakeholder 10 points. Other stakeholders were then identified and scored relative to the first stakeholder group. When they had completed this exercise, they then assessed scores for stakeholders in the future, thinking about whether they believed scores should increase or decrease in order for the project to achieve its vision. The result from one of the teams is shown below.

Kim explained that “there are many institutions with relatively high contemporary scores. In other words, SISLaM sees multiple actors as currently very important to fulfilling the project’s vision at present. This speaks to the importance of creating a platform where these actors can be convened, where dialogue can happen, and integration occur. There are some actors that have lower contemporary scores than future desired scores. This suggests that the project needs these agencies to increase their influence if its vision is to be achieved. It also suggests that the project needs to work out strategies for how the influence of these agencies can be increased.”

The Net-Map also displayed ‘risk communities’ which are those communities, such as landowners, who have been in conflict with each other. Enga Province is among several Papua New Guinean provinces which have suffered from communal violence since the national elections in 2022. While the project regarded their present influence to be medium (receiving a score of five), it would prefer this influence to be reduced to zero.

“It seems that traditional institutions remain very powerful – and therefore it makes sense to explore how the project can capitalise on these,” was Kim’s observation.


SISLaM also took Kim to visit three recipients of the project’s low-value grants. The first of these was a reforestation initiative being implemented by the Yakam Resort Cooperative Society. Emmanual Kilanda, the chairman of the cooperative, showed the team the work that is being done to reforest unstable slopes. As these slopes are extremely steep, planting trees on them has been a significant challenge, yet the cooperative has managed to plant 12,572 pine and kamare trees over 45 hectares since receiving the grant.

The SISLaM project includes components to help Engan farmers improve their value chain access and develop sustainable revenue streams. To illustrate this, the team visited the Wabag Coffee Growers Cooperative, where the initiative works to provide farmers with coffee seedlings. Kandes Nyia, the chairman of the cooperative, took the group to see the cooperative’s coffee nurseries and two farms. The grant has resulted in significant production increases, but the farmers struggle with an overabundance of coffee for their relatively localised markets. This situation highlights the need for Engan communities to extend and strengthen their value chains as they have a high-quality product and are located close to transport links.


Kandes Nyia, the chairman of the Wabag Coffee Growers’ Cooperative, explains his work from inside a coffee store.

Finally, the team journeyed to Laiagam District, where they were given an exuberant welcome by the Kinapulam Farmers’ Cooperative Society, which is working on producing sweet and English potato seed for local farmers. They visited several farms to understand the work of the cooperative and the results being achieved with the help of the grant. As in Wabag district, the low-value grant has resulted in significant production increases, however, ensuring the produce gets to market remains a challenge for these communities.


At the end of the visit, Kim reflected he was “particularly impressed by the implementation team.”

“Sam Moko provides very impressive leadership in a very challenging operating context, and I can see the strength of the team from its dynamic. The team is well selected and has a deep knowledge of Enga Province and its people. From what I have seen of the low-value grants, these have created real opportunities to communities. Of course, attention will need to be given to how recipient communities can market their outputs – and SISLaM can play a key role in convening this discussion so that communities can identify their own solutions and ensure this project’s long-term sustainability”.


The welcome from the Kinapulam community. Here, the leader of Ward 2 delivers his welcome speech.

This post is based on an article that was first published in UNDP’s July 2023 newsletter.

Participant Information

Landscapes For Our Future - Global Summit & Knowledge Exchange event, Nairobi, Kenya 16th to 20th October 2023

The one-week Global Summit & Knowledge Exchange event, hosted by the Central Component (CC) of the Landscapes For Our Future (LFF) programme aims to foster engagement between the 22 LFF project teams, global experts and members of the LFF programme. This event will share lessons learned, focus on key capacity gaps and explore the rich solutions and innovations on offer across the LFF programme in addressing the global climate and sustainability crises through landscape approaches.

Objectives:

  1. To facilitate cross-learning and knowledge exchange between implementing partners within the LFF program.
  2. To further knowledge and share experiences on implementing ILM across various contexts.
  3. To provide capacity development and technical support to project teams.
  4. To further strengthen the LFF community and make further plans for CC support to project teams.

To find out more or view the agenda, please bookmark our Global Summit event page:


VENUE

The Summit will be held on the campus of the World Agroforestry Centre, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, Nairobi, Kenya. Please use the gate indicated below.


TRAVEL

All participants are required to facilitate their individual travel arrangements (flights, airport transfers, accommodation and per diem) to and from Kenya, and secure travel insurance during this period in case of any emergency medical attention and any other travel related risks through their respective project budgets.

All international participants are encouraged to purchase their tickets early enough to ensure all other logistics are sorted out in good time. Note that many other events are being held in Nairobi in October.


TRAVEL DOCUMENTS

PASSPORT: Kindly ensure that your passport is valid for at least 6 months prior to travel.

HEALTH: A valid yellow fever certificate. Ensure possession of Valid Covid-19 certificate prior to your travel.

VISA: Ensure that you have valid Visa entry requirements for both any transit and destination country. We suggest that you print off a copy of your Kenyan visa for flight boarding and immigration.

ACCOMMODATION: Note that some airlines will require evidence of hotel accommodation before allowing participants to board. We advise that you print off confirmation of your hotel accommodation.

FLIGHTS: Note that some airlines will require evidence of participants’ flights out of Kenya before allowing participants to board.


INVITATION LETTER

Download an invitation letter in English:

Descargar una carta de invitación en español:

Téléchargez une lettre d’invitation en français:

Faça o download de uma carta-convite em português:

For a personalised version with your name, please email F.Wanda@cifor-icraf.org.


KENYA VISA

Note that it is NOT possible to obtain visa on arrival. Please apply for a TOURIST visa.

Nationals of the following countries do not require visas to enter Kenya: Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Botswana, Brunei, Burundi, Cyprus, Dominica, Eswatini (Swaziland), Ethiopia, Fiji, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Jamaica, Kiribati, Lesotho, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Namibia, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Rwanda, Samoa, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, San Marino, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu, Uganda, Vanuatu, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

All other countries require a visa to enter the Republic of Kenya. Please apply for a tourist visa at the link below:

A credit or debit card will be needed to make visa payment, which is approximately US$52. When you apply, you will be asked to upload:
1. passport photo of the applicant
2. bio page of your passport
3. proof of accommodation
4. proof of a departure flight out of Kenya.

Tip: Upload JPEG files only (not PDF).


KENYA COVID-19 TRAVEL REQUIREMENTS

COVID-19 entry regulations were lifted on 9 May 2023.


HOTEL ACCOMMODATION

Accommodation reservations for participants shall be made upon request on the standard bed and breakfast rate unless otherwise requested by participants and based on room availability. If you do not ask us for assistance with hotel bookings, we shall assume that you are making your own arrangements. We are pleased to offer Summit participants pre-negotiated rates at the following hotels, all of which are close to The World Agroforestry Center. All quoted rates include VAT and are for bed and breakfast. All rates are quoted in Kenya shillings (Kes) and United States dollars (US$) (approx. Kes 141.7 = US$ 1 as of August 10, 2023).

Room Type: Standard Single Room
Kes 8,700 (US$ 65)
Address; N0 34 UN CRESCENT ROAD, P.O Box 1813 -00621, Nairobi, Kenya.
Email: info@comfortgardens.com Mobile: +254723610280
Room Type: Standard Single Room
Kes 16,800 (US$ 120)
Address; Limuru Road Village Market, Gigiri
Email: reservations@trademark-hotel.com Mobile: +254 730 886 000
Room Type: Standard Single Room
Kes 29,250 (US$ 210)
Address; Limuru Road The Village Market, Gigiri P.O. Box 1333- 00621 Nairobi, KENYA
Email: reservations@trademark-hotel.com Mobile: +254 730 886 000
Room Type: Standard Single Room
Kes 16, 790 (US$ 115)
Address; Off Limuru Rd At Runda Two Rivers Mall, Nairobi, Kenya
Email: reservations@holidayinnnairobi.com Mobile: + 254-709-264000

AIRPORT TRANSFERS

Airport transfers will be arranged by respective hotels (Airport-Hotel-Airport). The main airport serving international flights in Nairobi is Jomo Kenyatta International Airport and is approximately 10.2 Km to Gigiri.


GETTING TO AND FROM THE MEETING VENUE

Shuttle transport has been arranged by the organizers from hotel to the Campus in the morning and return in the evening during the summit period.


MEALS

Lunch, morning and evening tea breaks shall be provided throughout the Summit period. We shall also have a cocktail evening incorporated into the agenda on one of the evenings and these expenses shall be covered by the organizers.


PER DIEM ALLOWANCE

Kindly plan to bring your daily subsistence allowance to cater for your dinner and incidental expenses during your stay in Kenya. The Summit organizers will not be paying per diem or any other allowances.


GENERAL INFORMATION

Time Zone

Kenya is in the East Africa Time (EAT) zone (GMT+3).

Currency and Payment Methods

The official currency of the Republic of Kenya is the Kenya shilling (KES).

Visa cards are widely accepted, with Mastercard/Maestro/Cirrus also accepted although less commonly, and Amex also often used in international chains and tourist areas.

Language

The official languages in Kenya are English and Swahili and both are widely spoken.

Internet and Mobile Communications

Kenya is generally well connected. If participants wish to purchase a SIM for mobile data and calls, these are available at Safaricom, Airtel or Telecom Kenya outlets after immigration and baggage claim at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport.

Hotels will offer free Wi-Fi internet. and the same shall also be available at the Summit venue.

Power supply

Power supplied at socket in Kenya is 240V. Kenya uses a Type G socket (three rectangular pins).

Weather

Notwithstanding climate change, average Nairobi temperatures in October range from a high of 28°C to a low of 14°C. Please be aware that there may be monsoon rains during the summit. You may want to consider bringing an umbrella, a raincoat and other suitable wet weather clothing.

Security

The World Agroforestry Center’s campus is located in Gigiri, alongside the United Nations and a large number of embassies. The area is well policed by Kenya’s Diplomatic Police, military and private security firms.

The political situation in Kenya is currently calm, although participants may wish to refer to their respective embassies’ travel advisories.

It is important to always take responsibility for your personal safety and exercise necessary precautions.

Participants are encouraged to always carry a photocopy of their passport.

On arrival at the World Agroforestry Center’s gates, participants will be cleared by security and issued with an adhesive pass or a name Tag, and this must always be worn within campus.

Hospitals

The Nairobi Hospital

Located in: Warwick Centre, UN Avenue, Gigiri

Tel: +254 703 072000 / 729 110202/ +254 729 110 203

Email: warwicknursing@nbihosp.org

M.P. Shah Hospital, Village Medical Centre Located in: The Village Market

Address: Limuru Road Gigiri Nairobi KE Tel: +254 204 291 500: +254 111 159 000

Email: info@mpshahhospital.org

The Aga Khan University Hospital

Location: 3rd Parklands Avenue, Limuru Road, Nairobi, Kenya Phone: +254 (0) 111 011 888 or +254 (0) 730 011 888

Email: akuh.nairobi@aku.edu

Emergency Phone Numbers

999 / 112 / 911 – National Police Service

999 – Emergency services (ambulance, fire and EMS)

Useful contacts:

Kim Geheb

k.geheb@cifor-icraf.org

Tel.: +254-758-606-525

WhatsApp: +254758606525

Khalil Walji

k.walji@cifor-icraf.org

Tel.: +254-701-501-509

WhatsApp: +254701501509

Dominique Le Roux

d.leroux@cifor-icraf.org

WhatsApp: +27717232790

Logistics

Freidah Wanda

f.wanda@cifor-icraf.org

Tel.: +254-704-272-349

WhatsApp: +254704272349

We hope this helps you to prepare optimally for your stay in Kenya and we look forward to welcoming you.

Safe Travels!!

Newsletter #5 | August 2023

Read the fifth edition of our newsletter

Welcome to our Latin American and Caribbean special edition newsletter, where we delve into the transformative power of Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) as showcased in our programme’s 7 projects across 16 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. 

Clockwise from top right: Les Pitons and town of Soufriere in Saint Lucia, OECS. Aerial view of Bahía Negra town, on the banks of the Paraguay River. Organic panela production and donkeys in Ecuador. Cattle rancher in San Ignacio de Velasco in Bolivia. Cattle ranch  in Honduras. Signage in Ecuador. Photos by Peter Cronkleton and Natalia Cisneros/CIFOR-ICRAF. 

View or download more photos and videos from our image archive here.


REFLECTIONS FROM THE FIELD

ILM in LAC

The Central Component’s Natalia Cisneros meets with Mi Biósfera team members during our learning visit to Honduras. Photo by Peter Cronkleton/CIFOR-ICRAF 

We, the Central Component, see six critical elements in the ILM process. To see them in action, you need look no further than our programme’s remarkable Latin American and Caribbean projects, which have embraced integrated landscape approaches to revolutionize land use practices, conserve biodiversity and foster sustainable development.


KNOWLEDGE

Can ILM contribute to sustainable cattle ranching?  And vice versa?

Chiquitanía landscape of Bolivia. Image by GIZ/Paisajes Resilientes 

In recent years, strategies to promote sustainable alternatives to conventional ranching have emerged, aiming to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change, reduce deforestation, conserve vulnerable ecosystems, and mitigate impacts from cattle production. Achieving these objectives often involves endorsing enhanced practices, implementing robust monitoring systems, and fostering collaboration among various stakeholders. ILM could enable pathways to achieving impact at scale.


Landscape Learning Session #2: Criteria, Indicators & Tools of ILM

Watch the webinar

Despite its application over the past few decades in various contexts to harmonize conflicting land management goals such as development and conservation, there remains no systematic framework to guide the implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of ILM projects. 

We set out to fix that, conducting a global review to propose such a framework. This learning event presented the results of this review and delved into two examples of monitoring tools applied in ILM projects. 


RESOURCES

MSF fatigue? How to design for context, inclusion and effectiveness

A tale of two Brazilian states leads us to really useful tips to design meaningful, inclusive platforms for transformation. In the 1990s and early 2000s – in response to calls for participatory land-use planning and concerns about deforestation – Brazil’s state governments began to carry out Ecological-Economic Zoning processes to  collectively lay out land-use plans that were inclusive and sustainable. These processes were mandated to be developed and implemented using multi-stakeholder participatory mechanisms. 

Two states ended up with very different results. Explore the lessons to be learned through this curation of research and interviews, and download at-a-glance factsheets with tips on how to how to manage power, politics and participation in your own multi-stakeholder processes. 

We often take too much for granted in MSPs. Some considerations are simple – like changing where the platform is held, or adjusting seating arrangements – and some require deeper strategic thinking. Our research has unearthed a host of practical steps that convenors can take to help empower marginalised stakeholders and create lasting impact. 

 Anne Larson on CIFOR-ICRAF’s info sheets and how-to guides

Key ILM elements at work in our Latin American and Caribbean projects

We keep saying it; they’re showing it.
Chiquitanía landscape of Bolivia. Image by GIZ/Paisajes Resilientes
Chiquitanía landscape of Bolivia.

Our experience suggests that Integrated Landscape Management is a process for managing the competing demands on land through the implementation of adaptive and integrated management systems.

When combined with well-planned and executed technical interventions, ILM enables landscape multi-functionality to be managed, and its benefits to society and the environment to be captured and distributed.

Landscapes For Our Future Central Component

We see six critical elements in the Integrated Landscape Management (ILM) process. To see them in action, you need look no further than our programme’s remarkable Latin American and Caribbean projects, which have embraced the ILM approach to revolutionize land use practices, conserve biodiversity and foster sustainable development.

It is important that we understand what it is that we are integrating and managing when it comes to ILM. From our perspective, it is the people who make claims on the landscape that matter. Hence why the first two of our ILM ingredients focus on stakeholders. We see these organized behind a common vision, which they seek to reach through adaptive management and the right mix of tools. Finally, because the process works well, it is institutionalized


Kim Geheb, Coordinator, Central Component of the LFF

🇧🇴 Bolivia: Paisajes Resilientes

About the project

The department of Santa Cruz is part of the Amazon basin and comprises a large part of Bolivia’s lowland forests. It is home to numerous Indigenous communities and smallholder farmers who are highly vulnerable to poverty and climate-related risks. The department contains 78% of Bolivia’s biodiversity and supports 70% of the country’s agricultural production.

The Paisajes Resilientes en la Chiquitanía (Resilient Landscapes in the Chiquitanía) project, managed and implemented by GIZ, has made promising strides towards ILM to address the impacts of climate change in the the world’s largest preserved tropical dry forest and on the livelihoods of populations in nearby watersheds. It focuses on promoting water and productive security while strengthening governance structures and sustainable socio-economic activities.

Key ILM elements

Stakeholder identification

A key strength of the Paisajes Resilientes project lies in its robust stakeholder mapping exercises. The project utilizes the comprehensive Capacity Works tool to identify and engage relevant stakeholders in the landscape. This tool enables the project to assess the capacities and roles of different stakeholders, ensuring their active involvement and meaningful participation in decision-making processes. By mapping stakeholders and understanding their capacities, the project fosters stronger collaboration, builds local ownership, and enhances the overall effectiveness and sustainability of its interventions.

Multi-stakeholder Fora (MSF)

There is no MSF covering the entire landscape or functioning at the scale of the two watersheds making up the project area. However, there are several platforms that provide incipient foundations for MSFs within subunits in the project area. In each sub-watershed, the Paisajes Resilientes team has formed or reactivated Management Committees (Comités de Gestión), which are platforms composed primarily of representatives from communities participating in their pilot activities but also draw in other government actors, like municipal agencies, the municipal council, and the sub-gobernación (provincial government). Each management committee functions autonomously without coordination with the others.

In the Alto Paraguá sub-watershed, the Paisajes Resilientes team supported the creation of the MSF, strengthening the Asamblea Distrito (8th District Assembly), who leads it. In Bajo Paraguá and Tarvo, Paisajes Resilientes supported the strengthening of existing MSFs; and in the Alta sub-watershed, Paisajes Resilientes was behind the MSF’s reactivation. Community representatives are also involved the Asamblea Districto 8, which brings together cabildo representatives from communities in the sub-watershed of Alto-Paraguá.

The management committees have statutes and regulations designed specifically for each sub-watershed. In most cases, the Management Committees meet monthly, and once in a while the RLC team participates, to present advances related to their project.

These MSFs may pave the way for inclusive decision-making and potential collaboration, amplifying the project’s impact.

Common Vision

The Paisajes Resilientes team has organized a series of workshops to build collaboration among stakeholders around a common agenda. In signing a collaborative agreement with the Santa Cruz Departmental government, the project facilitated an inter-sectorial meeting with representatives of different agencies in the departmental government to dialogue needs and urgent issues to tackle. This was followed by a workshop with private sector and finance sector stakeholders.

Iterative and Adaptive Management

The Paisajes Resilientes project exhibits a strong commitment to reflection, learning and adaptation throughout its implementation. Recognizing the complexity and uncertainties associated with managing natural resources and ecosystems, the project continually assesses the effectiveness of its strategies, adapts to changing circumstances and integrates new knowledge and community perspectives into decision-making processes. This commitment is evident in the selection and design of pilot projects, which have been adjusted based on realities encountered in the field. For example, the exchanges of indigenous female leaders, initially planned as a single event, were expanded to multiple meetings due to their positive response. Similarly, the inclusion of apiculture and environmental education in the communication program, which were not initially defined in the project’s design, reflects the project’s adaptive planning and responsiveness.

Furthermore, the Paisajes Resilientes project places a strong emphasis on knowledge sharing and learning. It facilitates the exchange of experiences, best practices, and lessons learned among different stakeholders, including local communities, government agencies, and partner organizations. This collaborative learning approach enables the project to leverage collective knowledge, build on successful approaches, and adapt strategies based on shared experiences. By fostering a culture of learning and continuous improvement, the project strengthens its capacity to address complex challenges, promote innovation, and achieve long-term sustainability in the landscapes it works in.

Institutionalization

The project also excels in cultivating partnerships with the local and regional governmental actors responsible for governing the landscape. The Santa Cruz Departmental Assembly, a legislative body approving departmental policies, has closely aligned itself with the project’s objectives, providing a solid foundation for transformative change. Similarly, the Municipal Government of San Ignacio de Velasco, with its mandate to provide essential services and public works, has emerged as a robust ally, fostering positive local dynamics. These partnerships enhance the project’s potential for impact, engaging stakeholders who possess the power to effect change in the landscape.

Learn more from this project

A notable strength of the Paisajes Resilientes project is its adoption of a nested approach to landscape management. Recognizing the complexity and scale of the landscapes involved, the project divides the areas into sub-watershed units. This approach allows for a more focused and targeted implementation of interventions within specific ecological units. By addressing the unique characteristics and challenges of each sub-watershed, the project team tailors its strategies and actions to the specific needs and opportunities of different areas, thereby enhancing the effectiveness and impact of its interventions. Furthermore, the establishment of the sub-watersheds’ Management Committees, serving as a multi-stakeholder platform for diverse stakeholders to convene — even those who seldom interact in the landscape — paves the way for inclusive decision-making and potential collaboration, amplifying the project’s impact.


🇧🇷 🇵🇾 Brazil/Paraguay: CERES

Aerial view of Bahía Negra town, on the banks of the Paraguay River. Photo by WWF Paraguay.

About this project

One standout project in Latin America and the Caribbean is the Cerrado Resiliente (Resilient Cerrado) project, CERES. Led by WWF Brazil, WWF Paraguay, and the Institute for the Preservation and Promotion of Indigenous Peoples, CERES is a holistic project that focuses on the intricate interconnections between agriculture, natural resources, and rural livelihoods. 

The Cerrado Biome is the world’s most biodiverse savanna, covering more than 2 million km2 in Brazil and Paraguay. It is home to 83 different Indigenous groups and communities, who have received varying degrees of recognition and land tenure. The Cerrado provides crucial ecosystem services at national, regional and global scales, supplying 70% of the country’s agricultural output and 44% of its exports. 

Key ILM elements

Multi-stakeholder Fora (MSF)

By bringing together diverse stakeholders, including farmers, researchers, and policymakers, CERES creates a collaborative platform for knowledge exchange and action. 

CERES also recognizes the significance of promoting sustainable value chains in responsible land use. Through its collaboration with the Tamo de Olho initiative, CERES further enhances its impact. Tamo de Olho (meaning “We’re Watching” in Portuguese) is a community-driven monitoring program that engages local communities in the collection and analysis of data related to land use, deforestation, and conservation. By involving communities as active participants in monitoring efforts, CERES fosters a sense of ownership and strengthens local knowledge systems.

WWF Paraguay, responsible for implementing the CERES project in the Alto Paraguay landscape, has successfully engaged small, medium, and large ranches through a multistakeholder forum that highlights shared interests among stakeholders. WWF Paraguay’s efforts have resulted in significant collaboration among diverse stakeholder groups, focusing on the Bahía Negra district’s land use management plan, known as POUT (Plan De Ordenamiento Urbano y Territorial).

The POUT roundtable was established as an MSF to support the POUT process. It facilitated dialogues and feedback from a wide variety of government, private sector, producer associations, indigenous communities and NGOs in the landscape. Their participation was driven by the desire to have their interests represented in the final land use planning process. Valentina Bedoya, WWF Paraguay’s Sustainable Landscapes Officer, emphasizes that the POUT Roundtable, initially established with a specific goal, has evolved into an entry point for multi-stakeholder dialogue that was previously lacking in the landscape.

The POUT Roundtable has proven to be a successful mechanism for participatory decision-making and consensus-building regarding land use in the territory, a sensitive topic because it touches on people’s livelihoods. However, an important lesson learned, says Patricia Roche, WWF Paraguay’s Project Specialist, is the need to empower governmental authorities to lead these spaces effectively. As highlighted by Roche, “It is crucial for these platforms to be led and convened by local or national authorities, as certain interest groups may view international NGOs as outsiders with conservation biases that could influence the outcomes.”

Institutionalization

CERES has successfully established partnerships with government agencies, local organizations, and indigenous communities, fostering a collaborative approach to integrated landscape management. This institutionalization ensures that the project’s strategies and initiatives are embedded within existing frameworks, policies, and governance structures, leading to long-term sustainability and impact. 

Learn more from this project

CERES stands out for its ability to support decision-making, providing stakeholders with valuable tools and knowledge for informed choices. Leveraging cutting-edge technologies like remote sensing and data analytics, CERES guides informed decision-making and optimizes resource use. For instance, the project employs satellite imagery to assess land cover changes and identify priority areas for conservation and restoration efforts. CERES also emphasizes precision agriculture, enabling farmers to adopt sustainable practices tailored to their specific landscapes and challenges.

Through its comprehensive research and monitoring efforts, CERES generates reliable data on land use, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, enabling evidence-based decision-making. This approach helps stakeholders understand the potential social, economic, and environmental impacts of different land management practices and guides the development of sustainable strategies. Moreover, CERES facilitates capacity building and knowledge exchange among stakeholders, empowering them to actively participate in decision-making processes and implement effective solutions for ILM.

CERES fosters transparency and accountability along value chains, encouraging responsible production and consumption. By promoting sustainable sourcing and traceability, CERES ensures that products reaching the market are produced in a manner that safeguards ecosystems, respects workers’ rights, and contributes to local communities’ well-being. The Central do Cerrado Cooperative, a key partner supported by the CERES project, represents a collective enterprise combining multiple stakeholders to develop and maintain a productive value chain with standout products that include wild, endemic Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) such as the prized barú nut which is gathered from the wild. This initiative has gained traction among consumers, who increasingly prioritize ethical and environmentally-friendly products. By promoting sustainable value chains, CERES contributes to the economic viability of integrated landscapes management, creating market incentives for sustainable practices and supporting the livelihoods of local communities.

Read more about the CERES project’s sustainable cattle ranching.


🇨🇴 Colombia: Paisajes Sostenibles

About this project



Palafittic community in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

Paisajes Sostenibles (Sustainable Landscapes) is a project in Colombia coordinated by FAO. It aims to promote sustainable land and resource management practices, biodiversity conservation and improving local community livelihoods. By integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions, the project seeks to achieve a balance between conservation and development in two landscapes: the Colombian Caribbean and the Central Andes. 

The project is part of the larger private-public initiative called Herencia Colombia (HeCo), led by the Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development and National Natural Parks. Other project partners include WWF Colombia, the Institute for Marine and Coastal Research José Benito Vives de Andréis (INVEMAR), and the Instituto Alexander von Humboldt.

Key ILM elements

Common vision

Focusing on the Caribbean landscape, INVEMAR plays a pivotal role in addressing trust-building and supporting alternative sustainable livelihoods in vulnerable communities. For instance, INVEMAR collaborates with the palafitic communities in the Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta area. Heavily reliant on fishing, these communities have been significantly affected by climate change and the armed conflict. Through capacity-building programs, infrastructure development, and marketing support, INVEMAR empowers communities such as these to establish sustainable ecotourism enterprises. These initiatives not only provide alternative sources of income but also contribute to the conservation of ecosystems and cultural heritage. INVEMAR’s holistic approach, integrating trust-building efforts with sustainable livelihood opportunities, ensures the well-being and resilience of these communities.

Technical solutions and tools

One of the standout features of the Paisajes Sostenibles project is the financial sustainability platform for entrepreneurs, led by WWF Colombia. This dynamic platform empowers local entrepreneurs involved in sustainable activities within the project landscapes. By providing access to funding, technical assistance and business mentorship, WWF Colombia supports the growth of environmentally responsible businesses. Through this platform, entrepreneurs can pursue resilient livelihoods while contributing to the conservation of natural resources, creating a win-win scenario for both communities and the environment.


🇪🇨 Ecuador: Paisajes Andinos

About the project

The Paisajes Andinos project aims to use an integrated landscapes approach to promote sustainable livelihoods and protect Andean ecosystem services. Implemented by Food and Agriculture Organization, in collaboration with the Ministry of the Environment, Water, and Ecological Transition and the Ministry of Agriculture and Cattle, it operates in multiple parishes across four of Ecuador’s provinces in collaboration with local associations and communities to implement a range of activities that support organic agriculture, value chain development, capacity building, and market access for agricultural products.

Key ILM elements

Multi-stakeholder fora (MSF)

The Paisajes Andinos project actively participates in the early stages of the Minga de Montaña, a community of practice that brings together various landscape management projects and stakeholders, serving as an MSF for coordination, knowledge sharing and collaboration among different initiatives in the region. By engaging in this community of practice, the project avoids overlap, learns from others’ experiences and contributes to the development of effective landscape management approaches. This collaborative network strengthens the overall impact and outcomes of landscape management projects, promoting integrated and holistic approaches to sustainable development. 

Technical solutions and tools

The Paisajes Andinos project demonstrates exceptional strengths in monitoring and evaluation, leveraging a range of advanced tools and technologies to collect, analyse and interpret data. One notable aspect is the project’s utilization of System for Earth Observation Data Access, Processing, and Analysis for Land Monitoring (SEPAL) tools for satellite data analysis. By harnessing the power of satellite imagery, the project can monitor land cover changes, vegetation health, and other environmental indicators. SEPAL tools enable the project to access near real-time data, facilitating the identification of areas that require intervention and providing valuable insights for adaptive management. 

Additionally, the project employs KoboToolbox, an open-source data collection platform, to gather field-level information efficiently. Through this tool, project staff and community members can collect survey data, track progress, and monitor indicators in a systematic and streamlined manner. KoboToolbox’s user-friendly interface and customizable forms enhance data quality and enable real-time data analysis, empowering the project with up-to-date information for decision-making. 

Furthermore, Paisajes Andinos makes effective use of OpenForis, a suite of open-source software tools for environmental data collection and analysis. OpenForis facilitates the design of complex surveys, enables systematic sampling and supports data validation and quality control.

The project also benefits from SAP Crystal Reports, a data visualization and analysis platform. Crystal enables the project team to transform complex monitoring and evaluation data into clear and insightful visual representations, such as interactive maps, graphs, and charts. These visualizations facilitate data interpretation, communication and knowledge sharing among project stakeholders and decision-makers, supporting evidence-based decision-making and promoting transparency. 

By leveraging these tools, the project ensures accuracy and reliability in the collection of data related to biodiversity, forest cover and other environmental parameters, contributing to robust monitoring and evaluation processes. By harnessing their capabilities the Paisajes Andinos project demonstrates a strong commitment to utilizing cutting-edge technologies in its monitoring and evaluation efforts.

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One of the key strengths of the Paisajes Andinos project lies in its work around productive, sustainable value chains, with a notable example being its focus on the production of organic panela, an unrefined cane sugar. The project provides essential infrastructural support to enable farmers to qualify as organic panela producers, including the enhancement of ovens for more efficient production processes. Moreover, the project encourages diversification of products by supporting the production of other crops alongside panela. This diversification not only adds value to the farmers’ offerings but also contributes to their overall resilience. The project promotes sustainable production practices, such as selective harvesting and environmentally friendly approaches, while providing capacity building and training programmes to improve farmers’ skills and knowledge. Furthermore, through organic certification and collaboration, the project facilitates international market access for organic panela, creating broader market opportunities for farmers and increasing their income potential.


🇭🇳 Honduras: Mi Biósfera

About this project

The Integrated Management Project for the Río Plátano Biosphere (Mi Biósfera) aims to protect the Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve, which is one of the last remaining tropical rainforests in Central America and is rich in biodiversity. Mi Biósfera’s objective is to reduce deforestation, protect biodiversity, and improve food security in a pilot area of the biosphere reserve. It focuses on promoting sustainable and integrated landscape management systems through agricultural value chains and zero deforestation approaches. 

The project is divided into five components, including strengthening landscape management, fostering livestock and coffee value chains, implementing a climate financing mechanism, restoring degraded forest areas, and generating knowledge related to climate, biodiversity, and livelihoods.

Coordinated by the Honduran National Institute for Forest, Protected Areas and Wildlife Conservation and Development, the project involves several institutions, including the Zamorano Panamerican Agriculture University, the Honduran Foundation for Rural Business Development, the National University of Agriculture, and the Presidential Climate Change Office, Climate Plus.

Key ILM elements

Stakeholder identification

Preliminary information to map key stakeholders for the Mi Biósfera project’s interventions, the team used a methodology called the ‘Key Stakeholder Mapping’. This is a rapid assessment method that allows the team to understand, in a simple way, the social realities in which the project is immersed, the potential stakeholders present in a territory, how they interact with each other, what their beliefs, values and behaviour are and how they are defined, as well as their perceptions and their influence on the implementation of the Mi Biósfera project. 

Iterative and adaptive management

The Mi Biósfera project also benefits from its integration of scientific research and monitoring. By collaborating with universities, research institutions, and environmental experts, the project has access to cutting-edge knowledge and expertise in the field of conservation and sustainable development. This scientific approach allows for evidence-based decision-making and the continuous evaluation of project outcomes. Monitoring systems are in place to assess the effectiveness of conservation measures, identify emerging challenges, and adapt strategies accordingly. The integration of research and monitoring ensures that the project remains adaptive and responsive to the evolving needs of the ecosystem and the communities it serves. It also provides a valuable platform for knowledge exchange and the dissemination of best practices, both within Honduras and globally, contributing to the broader field of conservation and sustainable development.

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One notable strength of the Mi Biósfera project lies in its work around productive zero-deforestation cattle ranching. By implementing innovative techniques and practices, the project has reduced carbon emissions associated with cattle farming. Through measures, such as the use of rotational grazing and improved pasture management, the project has minimized the environmental impact of cattle ranching while maintaining high productivity levels. The adoption of sustainable wiring and solar panels for energy supply in ranching operations has further reduced reliance on fossil fuels and contributed to lower carbon emissions. These climate-smart farming practices have demonstrated the efficienct use of land, allowing for increased cattle stocking rates without compromising environmental sustainability. 

Model farm developments have been established to showcase these practices as examples of better resource management, attracting other farmers to adopt similar sustainable and climate-smart farming approaches. The project even reported successful outcome stories in which at least two model farms, Miguel Arias’ Las Marías and Ramón Santos’ Río Negro-Pisijire, have a negative carbon balance. Other positive outcomes include improved soil quality, enhanced water conservation, and increased revenues for farmers, all achieved with fewer human and financial costs.

Read more about sustainable cattle ranching in Latin America and the Carribbean.


🇯🇲 Jamaica: Hills to Ocean

About this project

A Jamaican Path from Hills to Ocean focuses on increasing resilience to climate change and reducing poverty through integrated and sustainable landscape management in three selected watershed management units (WMUs). Its goal is to support community-based organizations, including farmers, fisherfolk, entrepreneurs, and environmental groups, in improving their management and stewardship of targeted areas. A key aspect of the project’s objective is to address the negative impacts of hillside farming, such as soil erosion and landslides during the rainy season.  

Executed by the Planning Institute of Jamaica, the project’s technical implementation is carried out by the Rural Agricultural Development Authority and the Public Gardens Division, both under the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, and the National Environment and Planning Agency. 

Key ILM element

Institutionalization

One salient characteristic of this project lies in the involvement of main implementing agencies that possess mandates for policy action in the landscapes. Agencies such as the National Environment Planning Agency, the Forestry Department, and the Fisheries Division have the authority and expertise to enforce regulations and guidelines for sustainable resource management. Leveraging their legitimacy and institutional capacity, these agencies play a key role in convening stakeholders, including local communities, businesses, and civil society organizations. Through collaborative platforms and participatory processes, they facilitate dialogue, build consensus, and promote sustainable practices. The agencies’ involvement ensures the alignment of policies and actions across different sectors, fostering a holistic and integrated approach to landscape management.

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During its initial phases, the H2O project conducted a Rapid Ecological Assessment (REA) through the University of the West Indies (Mona). This assessment specifically focused on understanding the dynamics and health of ecosystems in the selected WMUs. It referred to stakeholder activity driving degradation as well as stakeholder impacted by degradation trends. The REA reported data on the level of “resilience” of informants surveyed in each of the WMUs. This assessment served as a basis to identify priority areas for project intervention efforts. 


Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States: OECS-ILM

About this project

This project, implemented by the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and its member states, encompasses nine individual projects tailored to the unique situations of each island. Among these, three (in Anguilla, Dominica, and Grenada) are classified as ILM projects, while six (in Antigua and Barbuda, the British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) are categorized as isSimple Land Management projects. 

The primary objective is to address challenges such as land degradation, deforestation, and biodiversity loss, with a focus on promoting sustainable land management practices and enhancing ecosystem resilience. The overall project aims to optimize land’s contribution to agriculture, food security, climate change mitigation and adaptation, while preserving ecosystem services and improving the quality of life for stakeholders, including local farmers and communities in selected watersheds and geographic locations.

Key ILM element

Institutionalization

A noteworthy characteristic of the OECS-ILM project is its comprehensive approach that spans nine initiatives across small island developing states. Each initiative is designed to tackle specific issues related to land degradation and sustainable land management, employing customized strategies and interventions based on the individual island’s unique needs and challenges. This diversity of projects provides opportunities to enhance the effectiveness and relevance of the overall programme, as it recognizes the distinct characteristics and requirements of each participating island.

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Recognizing the significant potential of agroforestry systems, the OECS-ILM project places particular emphasis on their application in countries like St Lucia and Grenada, where they can help mitigate risks associated with hillside farming and soil erosion, especially in hurricane-prone areas. These systems offer opportunities to harness the benefits of trees and perennial crops within agricultural landscapes. 

In Grenada, the project focuses on promoting agroforestry systems that support the cultivation of valuable crops such as nutmeg, cocoa, and other species, which are well-suited to the local conditions and have economic significance. Similarly, in St. Lucia, the initiative aims to establish agroforestry options to diversify existing farming systems, which are currently dominated by dasheen monocultures. Additionally, St. Lucia plans to create an agro-tourism park, further diversifying income sources and promoting sustainable land use practices.

Taking the bull by the horns

Can Integrated Landscape Management contribute to sustainable cattle ranching? And vice versa?

In the realm of Integrated Landscape Management (ILM), one pressing challenge often takes centre stage: deforestation. As we delve deeper into this complex problem, a compelling truth comes to light: cattle ranching is typically a significant driver of this activity.

In recent years, strategies to promote sustainable alternatives to conventional ranching have emerged, aiming to mitigate and adapt to climate change, reduce deforestation, preserve vulnerable ecosystems, and mitigate the impacts of cattle production. Achieving these objectives often involves endorsing enhanced practices, implementing robust monitoring systems, and fostering collaboration among various stakeholders. ILM could be conducive to sustainable cattle ranching and enable pathways to achieving impact at scale.

Under the EU-supported Landscapes For Our Future programme, there are several ILM projects in Latin America that have begun addressing deforestation related to cattle production by experimenting with sustainable approaches to cattle ranching. These projects include Mi Biósfera in Honduras, Cerrado Resiliente (CERES) in Brazil/Paraguay, Paisajes Resilientes in Bolivia, Paisajes Sostenibles in Colombia and Paisajes Andinos in Ecuador. Of these, the first three are the furthest advanced, and ready to offer lessons to our programme.

Towards more sustainable cattle ranching in Landscapes For Our Future projects

Over the last decade, sustainable cattle ranching has attracted greater visibility and importance. It is also becoming a more frequent requirement in global beef markets due to new regulations supporting the transition towards sustainable agriculture and forestry. For instance, last month the European Union passed the EU Deforestation Regulation (EUDR), seeking to reduce the EU market’s impact on deforestation and forest degradation globally. The EUDR requires the operators and traders of key commodities – such as cocoa, coffee, cattle, timber and palm oil – to be ‘deforestation-free’. This transition will also enable countries to comply with climate change mitigation and conservation commitments. Moreover, even if cattle farmers are not seeking to position their products in European or other export markets, sustainable ranching can support ranchers in multiple other ways.

The Mi Biósfera project being implemented in the south-western flank of Honduras’ Río Plátano Biosphere buffer zone is actively spearheading the adoption of promising technologies aimed at driving the transition towards sustainable cattle ranching. A collaborative effort between Honduras’ Forest Conservation Institute, the Zamorano Pan-American Agricultural School and the Mi Biósfera Consortium, which comprises FUNDER, the National Agricultural University, and the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources (SERNA), Mi Biósfera is providing training on sustainable practices to approximately 1,000 cattle ranchers through field schools and facilitating access to advanced technologies via sustainable finance programmes.

For example, Redin Valecillo’s involvement in Mi Biósfera has shown economic and environmental benefits at his farm, Los Mangos. The project introduced a more sustainable rotational grazing system, allowing his soils to recover and the quality of pasture to improve, thus enhancing its nutritional value for his cattle. More sustainable ranching has resulted in weight gain and increased milk production for his cows, while also reducing production costs over time. Notably, the use of solar panels and electric fencing has further lowered expenses.  The system’s efficiency has reduced labour requirements, and the return of riparian forest cover has improved water management. Decreased pesticide usage has led to increased biodiversity on the farm, and Mr. Vallecillo’s farm — one of the 20 farms in the pilot programme— is transitioning towards reduced carbon emissions.

The path to collective sustainability

ILM acknowledges the intricate interconnections among distinct stakeholders and their land use systems within landscapes, such as forests, pastures and water bodies. Adopting an ILM approach requires recognizing the importance of coordination and collaboration among interest groups. By convening farmers, local communities, government agencies and environmental organizations, among others, ILM facilitates collaborative efforts to address complex challenges such as deforestation, water management or land tenure, while unlocking numerous benefits for the social and economic development of farmers and their communities.

The CERES project in Paraguay illustrates how collaborative processes can provide a common platform for stakeholders to share knowledge, align goals and develop coordinated strategies to prioritize forest preservation while meeting the needs of producers, such as cattle farmers. By working together, stakeholders can pool resources, leverage expertise and ensure effective monitoring and enforcement of zero-deforestation commitments. By encouraging open dialogue and fostering a deeper understanding of different stakeholders’ perspectives and concerns, ILM serves as a catalyst for stakeholder coordination, enabling a unified and concerted effort towards achieving more sustainable cattle ranching practices.

WWF Paraguay, responsible for implementing the CERES project in the Alto Paraguay landscape, has successfully engaged small, medium and large-sized ranchers through a multistakeholder platform that highlights shared interests among stakeholders. WWF Paraguay’s efforts have resulted in significant collaboration among diverse stakeholder groups, focusing on the Bahía Negra district’s land use management plan, known as POUT (Plan De Ordenamiento Urbano y Territorial).

The POUT Roundtable was established as a multi-stakeholder platform to support the POUT process. It facilitated dialogue and feedback from various entities in the landscape, including national government agencies, the Bahía Negra municipality, local and regional cattle ranching associations and other producer associations, environmental and social organizations, indigenous groups and NGOs like WWF. Their participation was driven by the desire to have their interests represented in the final territorial planning process.

The POUT Roundtable, initially established with one specific goal, has evolved into an entry point for multi-stakeholder dialogue on a range of issues that was previously lacking in the territory

Valentina Bedoya, WWF Paraguay’s Sustainable Landscapes Officer

The POUT Roundtable has proven to be a successful mechanism for participatory decision-making and consensus building regarding land use in the territory, a sensitive topic because it touches on peoples’ livelihoods. However, an important lesson learned, as expressed by Patricia Roche, WWF Paraguay’s Project Specialist, is the need to empower governmental authorities to effectively lead these spaces. As highlighted by Roche, “it is crucial for these platforms to be led and convened by local or national authorities, as certain interest groups may view international NGOs as outsiders with conservation biases that could influence the outcomes.”

In addition to its involvement in the POUT Roundtable, WWF Paraguay, through the Alliance for Sustainable Development, offers technical assistance to cattle producers and establishes connections with a sustainable cattle market. CERES also provides them with assistance in the field to support nurseries for native tree species for use in silvopastoral systems. Moreover, CERES conducts fire management activities in which different landscape stakeholders — including the cattle sector — are involved. As a result, better management practices are being implemented in the territory.

In Bolivia’s dry Chiquitano forests, the Paisajes Resilientes project, led by GIZ, has been working with small and medium-scale cattle producers to help ranchers mitigate and adapt to the adverse effects of the droughts impacting the area. Photo by GIZ/Paisajes Resilientes.

In Bolivia, another effort at multi-stakeholder coordination is attempting to support a transition towards sustainable cattle farming practices to adapt to climate change effects such as water scarcity. In Bolivia’s dry Chiquitano forests, the Paisajes Resilientes project, led by GIZ, has been working with small and medium-scale cattle producers. In this region, sustainable farming initiatives, especially by reducing deforestation and improving water management practices, are being promoted as alternatives that could help ranchers mitigate and adapt to the adverse effects of the droughts impacting the area.

Taking the bull by the horns: balancing tradeoffs and defining shared goals

An important barrier to the adoption of sustainable practices is that producers need to see a clear benefit to transitioning from conventional ranching practices. Recognizing future benefits can also involve balancing tradeoffs between different interest groups and defining shared goals that might be difficult to achieve individually – such as the management of wildfires that the CERES project is addressing. By showcasing compelling examples of sustainable cattle ranching, such as Mi Biósfera’s model farms, other farmers might be inspired to harness greater positive economic, social and environmental outcomes themselves. In fact, farmers within Mi Biósfera’s intervention area have already attracted other farmers to adopt similar sustainable and climate-smart farming approaches.

Power, politics and participation in multi-stakeholder processes

A tale of two Brazilian states leads us to really useful tops to design meaningful, inclusive platforms for transformation.
Read at CIFOR-ICRAF’S Forests News

Participatory processes do not guarantee equality, as the interactions within them and in the wider contexts where they are enacted are shaped by power relations that define what kinds of actions are possible,

CIFOR-ICRAF scientists Juan Pablo Sarmiento Barletti, Anne Larson, and Nicole Heise Vigil in a 2021 study on how and why organisers plan their MSPs.

Here’s a cautionary tale for MSF convenors

In the 1990s and early 2000s – in response to calls for participatory land-use planning and concerns about deforestation – Brazil’s state governments began to carry out Ecological-Economic Zoning (ZEE in Portuguese) processes with the aim of collectively laying out land-use plans that were inclusive and sustainable. These processes were mandated to be developed and implemented using multi-stakeholder participatory mechanisms.

The two ended up with very different results, as described in this paper.

Acre and Mato Grosso are two landlocked Brazilian states, both of which contain part of the Amazonian rainforest. Acre’s ZEE map, completed in 2007, was widely hailed for advancing collective benefits and sustainability. For Mato Grosso, in contrast, the ZEE process was disastrous: it reflected deep-seated social and political conflicts, and to this day the state does not have a ZEE map, despite a number of valiant attempts by different parties to develop one. So, why did the two processes, which fell under the same federal mandate, turn out so differently?

This excellent article from CIFOR-ICRAF’s Forests News, not only outlines the different results and reasons behind them, but also provides links to really useful tools and resources to enable you to design and implement a multi-stakeholder process that’s far more like that of Acre, “widely hailed for advancing collective benefits and sustainability”, than of Mato Grosso, where “the ZEE process was disastrous: it reflected deep-seated social and political conflicts, and to this day the state does not have a ZEE map, despite a number of valiant attempts by different parties to develop one.”

… a lively living being, consistent with the identity of the populations living in the managed territory.

Acre government’s description of the map-making process after the addition of a cultural-political axis or ‘ethno-zoning’

Want to emulate that success in your own MSF?

Researchers and others at the Center for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF), along with partners in diverse organisations and locations around the world, have been exploring how MSFs might better achieve their goals in the future, within their Governance, Equity and Wellbeing programme. They’ve found a number of conceptual and practical measures to better take these social dimensions into account.

Find out more in this short video:


Practical fact sheets designed for you

To support participants and implementers in this multifaceted process of making MSPs more equitable and effective, CIFOR-ICRAF has produced a series of simple, accessible infosheets and ‘how-to’ guides. “We often take too much for granted in MSPs,” says author Anne Larson. “Some considerations are simple – like changing where the platform is held, or adjusting seating arrangements; and some require deeper strategic thinking. Our research has unearthed a host of practical steps that convenors can take to help empower marginalised stakeholders and create lasting impact.”

Click any image below to download its factsheet pdf.

¿Cómo vamos? A tool to support more equitable co-management of Peru’s protected areas

This brief presents the findings of an assessment conducted in Peru to understand and verify the adoption, outcomes, and potential impacts of the participatory reflective monitoring tool called "¿Cómo vamos?" (How are we doing?) in multistakeholder forums (MSFs). MSFs are recognized as a means of fostering transformative change to address the environmental and social impacts of the climate crisis. In Peru, the Protected Areas Service (SERNANP) mandates the establishment of MSFs or management committees (MCs) involving various stakeholders in the management of protected areas. The tool was co-developed and tested by CIFOR and SERNANP with eight MCs. The positive reception and interest in the tool led SERNANP to publish it as an official document and require its annual implementation by the MCs of its 75 protected areas. This assessment provides insights into the adoption, outcomes, and potential impacts of the tool in Peru.

A place at the table is not enough: Accountability for Indigenous Peoples and local communities in multi-stakeholder platforms

This article explores the challenges of achieving equity in multi-stakeholder platforms and forums (MSFs) focused on sustainable land and resource governance. Drawing on a comparative study of 11 subnational MSFs in Brazil, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Peru, the article examines the perspectives of Indigenous Peoples and local communities (IPLCs) who participate in these forums. The research aims to understand how MSFs can ensure voice, empowerment, and address inequality, while being accountable to the needs and interests of IPLCs. The findings highlight the optimism of IPLC participants but also reveal accountability failures. The article argues for greater strategic attention to how marginalized groups perceive their participation in MSFs and proposes ways to foster collective action and hold more powerful actors accountable to achieve equality, empowerment, and justice.
Download from CIFOR